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Autofill on certain inputs makes it easier for users to understand what data is needed to fill out the form correctly, and the purpose of some form fields. Autocomplete is especially helpful for users with motor, memory, or cognitive disabilities, where the purpose of the field may need to be presented in another way.
Captioning makes video and live events more inclusive for people who are deaf and/or have hearing deficiencies. It also helps users understand content if the surrounding environment makes the video hard to understand (like a noisy restaurant or concert), and can aid in learning by letting users follow the captions as they watch video.
It is confusing for a user if the form isn't validated correctly, but there's no clear indication why. Clear error messages describing how to fix the issue will allow users to fix issues faster and be able to submit the form.
Meaningful link text helps users know where the link will take them, which makes it easier to navigate across websites. Link text that isn't clear or accurate tends to create a confusing experience, or makes users unsure the link they're clicking on is safe.
Some images are too complex to be briefly described by alt text. Complex images can include charts, graphs, artwork, maps, etc. These images need a longer description on the page that can go into more detail about the non-text content.